Uterine polyps are relatively common findings during gynecological examination. The polyp is a protrusion of the wall of a hollow organ, in this case of the womb. More general text dedicated to polyps can be found here.
There are many possible reasons of a polyp formation. It can be a chronic local inflammation followed by excessive proliferation of mucosal cells, sometimes it is a form of a benign tumor or uterine cancer. Benign tumor polyps are quite usual and if untreated they may transform into malignant tumors.
Uterine polyps can be asymptomatic and randomly diagnosed. Sometimes, the fragile tissue of the polyp may cause occasional gynecological bleeding, reproductive disorders, pain during sexual intercourse, etc. Any of these symptoms should be followed by a gynecological examination.
Uterine polyps can be found by the ultrasound. By the classic gynecological examination using the so-called mirrors the gynecologist can find cervical polyps protruding into the vagina. The most ideal method of further examination is hysteroscopy as the doctor can directly see and evaluate the polyp, take a sample for histological examination or completely remove the lesion.
The polyp can be usually removed by endoscopy (hysteroscopy – see above). It is a relatively small intervention that can be done without hospitalization in an inpatient ward. The procedure may be performed with or without general anesthesia depending on the current case. If the polyp is malignant with malignant cells affecting the uterine wall or when the polyp is endoscopically irremovable, it is advisable to remove the whole uterus surgically (hysterectomy).