Cervical conization is a relatively frequent diagnostic and therapeutic surgical procedure in gynecology, which is aimed to protect the woman against cervical cancer.
Cervical conization is usually performed when a previous investigation (typically colposcopy) has detected changes in the cervix that could be considered precancerous. In such case, it is necessary to remove the suspected cervical portion and examine the obtained tissue under a microscope. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that cervical surgery could significantly impair the woman's ability wife to successfully maintain pregnancy.
It depends on the type and extent of the procedure. When it is performed in local anesthesia, no special preparation is needed. Operation performed in general anesthesia must be done on empty stomach and should be preceded by the classical preoperative examination.
Scheme - principle of cervical conization
The extent and type of surgery is always individual. The principle of the intervention is usage of a special needle or loop inserted through the vagina to the cervix and removal of its vaginal part. The removed part has often a conical shape and it is sent for histological evaluation, which may confirm precancerous changes and determine, whether the extent of the removal is sufficient. When there are no complications, the procedure may be performed as outpatient.
The cervical conization can cause minor bleeding; sexual intercourse is not advised for few weeks after the surgery to allow local healing. Swimming or bathing in public places should be also avoided for some time to prevent infection of the wound. The disruption of the cervix may slightly reduce the ability of this anatomical area to keep the pregnancy and therefore, the extent of the operation also depends on the fact if the woman plans a future pregnancy or not.
The procedure is short and simple. It not only allows obtaining a tissue for examination under a microscope, but it should also lead to the removal of diseased mucosa, thus preventing the development of cervical cancer.